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India and Artificial Intelligence: Global participation and indigenous developments

GS PAPER 3 Science & Technology

India ranks 3rd in the world in terms of high quality research publications in artificial intelligence (AI) but is at a significant distance from world leader China. We have been ranked 1st for ‘AI Adoption by Organisations’ and 7th for ‘Number of newly funded AI companies’ (2013-21) by the Stanford AI Index 2022. Further, India has been ranked 1st in all 5 Pillars of Peak AI’s Decision Intelligence Maturity Scale, which assesses a business’s commercial AI readiness.


Why US wants to collaborate with India in the AI race :

Being worried about China’s intent and with potential threat to be dominated by it, US can’t sit idle when the opponent can impede in its cybersecurity and damage its military. To avoid such a situation US is tying up with India in two developments. One is the Executive Order on AI issued by President Joe Biden (for US federal govt.) and the other is the release of the Pentagon’s updated strategy (for US military) for AI adoption by the US armed forces.    

How can India Harness the Benefits of AI?

  • Healthcare: By reviewing medical images and data, computational intelligence (AI) can assist in more precise disease diagnosis and treatment. Preventive measures and patient outcomes prediction can also be aided by it. 
  • Agriculture: By providing guidance for irrigation, fertilization, pest control and harvesting based on weather, soil, and plant data, generative AI can help optimize crop yield and quality.

  • Education: Personalized learning materials and tests for students can be made using generative AI, as per their interests and skills. Additionally, it can support teachers in developing curricula and providing feedback.


    • Manufacturing: By examining consumer behavior and market trends, Generative AI can assist in the design and production of new goods and services that cater to the needs and preferences of customers. It may also aid in enhancing productivity. 
  • Entertainment: New media such as games, music, art, and writing that can encourage and engage consumers can be produced with the aid of computational intelligence. Moreover, it can help in personalizing commercials and content recommendations according to user preferences.

What are India’s Initiatives for Generative AI?

  • Introducing the Generative AI Report: INDIAai, Government of India’s National AI Portal, explores the implications, ethical & legal issues, and opportunities that artificial intelligence (AI) presents for India. It carried out a number of studies and roundtable discussions with some of the most well-known voices in Generative AI, AI Policy, AI Governance and Ethics & academia.
  • National Mission on Interdisciplinary Cyber-Physical Systems:

Technology Innovation Hubs (TIH) have been established on AI and Machine Learning (ML) at IIT Kharagpur, that aims to provide the state-of-the-art training and capacity building to create next-generation scientists, technicians, engineers and technocrats in the field of AI.

  • Artificial Intelligence Research, Analytics and Knowledge Assimilation Platform:

It’s a Cloud computing platform, foussed to make India the pioneer amongst all emerging economies with respect  to AI and transform education, health, agriculture, urbanization and mobility sectors.

  • Joining the Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence (GPAI), 2020. India allied with 15 countries to from the GPAI. The purpose is to construct frameworks for the responsible utilization of emerging technologies.
  • Promoting an AI ecosystem: The government is dedicated to foster an AI ecosystem within the country by funding in R&D, supporting startups and innovation hubs, framimg AI policies and strategies, and promoting AI education & skilling.
  • National Strategy for Artificial Intelligence:

GoI has published the National Strategy for Artificial Intelligence with the purpose of developing an ecosystem for research and adoption of AI.

What should India do to Overcome Challenges posed by Generative AI?

  • Developing a clear and comprehensive regulatory framework that defines the purpose, scope, and principles of generative AI regulation. The framework should balance the protection of individuals from potential harms with the promotion of innovation and economic growth.

  • Building an accurate and fair liability framework that assigns responsibility and accountability for the actions and outcomes of generative AI systems. The framework should consider the roles and obligations of different stakeholders, such as developers, providers, users, and regulators.

    • Investing in research and development of generative AI technologies that can address India’s specific needs and challenges. India should leverage its strengths in data science, engineering, and entrepreneurship to create innovative solutions for various sectors and domains.

  • Fostering collaboration and cooperation among different stakeholders, such as government, industry, academia, civil society, and international partners. India should engage in dialogue and exchange of best practices with other countries and regions that are leading in generative AI development and regulation
  • Incorporating essential regulatory facets such as transparency, accountability, privacy, security, ethics, and human oversight. These facets should ensure that generative AI systems are trustworthy, reliable, and respectful of human rights and values.


Generative AI is an impactful and promising technology that can bring numerous benefits to India & its people. But, it also possesses many challenges and risks that must be addressed by effective & responsible regulation. India should implement a proactive and balanced approach that ensures its safety, security and ethical use through AI.


Kavish IAS

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What demotivates aspirants is the idea that at least 4-5 attempts are a must to qualify UPSC CSE EXAMS. This is absolutely incorrect. It’s true that this exam demands time to prepare but that’s not more than 2 to 3 years. It’s a learning process where you will make multiple mistakes and so, would need time to rectify them too. Most aspirants do not realise this fact and waste their attempts with inadequate preparation, which in turn, demotivates them. So, you need a mentor to guide you in this journey and tell you WHEN TO START and HOW TO START your preparation. Also before knowing what to study an aspirant has to first know WHAT NOT TO STUDY in this era of overflooded information around us. This is where the role of a Mentor becomes all the more important so that you do not waste your crucial time reading unnecessary content.
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Another myth that students fear is that ‘UPSC IS DIFFICULT AND ONLY IIT OR TOP COLLEGE GRADUATES CAN CRACK IT ’. UPSC is open for graduates from every stream and doesn’t prefer anyone based on his/her background. So if you are willing to dedicate your time in this preparation, you can surely succeed in this exam with a good rank.